What is Borrelia miyamotoi?
Borrelia miyamotoi is a species of spiral-shaped bacteria that is closely related to the bacteria that cause tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). It is related to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease. First identified in 1995 in ticks from Japan, B. miyamotoi has since been detected in two species of North American ticks, deer tick and the western black-legged tick.
What Symptoms does B. miyamotoi cause?
- body and joint pain
- rarely a rash
- elevated aminotransferase levels
What type of testing is available?
Right now the tests being used to detect B. miyamotoi are:
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests that detect DNA from the organism
- Antibody-based tests
Note: the CDC reports that both types of tests are under development and not widely commercially available but can be ordered from a limited number of CLIA-approved laboratories.
How is B. miyamotoi treated?
B. miyamotoi is treated with a 2-4 week course of doxycycline, amoxicillin and ceftriaxone have been used.
Other Facts about B. miyamotoi
- Fewer than 60 well-documented cases of human infection have been reported in the US.
- The B. miyamotoi bacterium was discovered in ticks and mice in Japan back in 1995
- In Izhevsk (population 650,000), a city in European Russia (Republic of Udmurtia), we identified 95 human cases of B. miyamotoi infection during 2010–2014
What is the best Prevention?
So far the best way to prevent B. miyamotoi is to avoid ticks. Make sure to avoid grassy, bushy or woody areas. Stick to trails. Wear insect repellent. Perform tick checks and properly remove ticks if found. Click here for more prevention methods.
Articles about B. miyamotoi
- Widespread Borrelia miyamotoi Tick-borne Fever Found in US
- 9 things you need to know about Borrelia miyamotoi
- Ticks in the UK have been found to carry the bacteria
- Borrelia miyamotoi Disease in the Northeastern United States: A Case Series
- Probability of Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi Transmission from Ticks to Humans
- Wagemakers A, Staarink PJ, Sprong H, Hovius JW. Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete. Trends Parasitol. 2015;31:260–9.
- Hofhuis A, Harms M, van den Wijngaard C, Sprong H, van Pelt W. Continuing increase of tick bites and Lyme disease between 1994 and 2009. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6:69–74.
- Platonov AE, Karan LS, Kolyasnikova NM, Makhneva NA, Toporkova MG, Maleev VV, Humans infected with relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1816–23.
- Krause PJ, Fish D, Narasimhan S, Barbour AG. Borrelia miyamotoi infection in nature and in humans. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21:631–9.
- Molloy PJ, Telford SR III, Chowdri HR, Lepore TJ, Gugliotta JL, Weeks KE, Borrelia miyamotoi disease in the northeastern United States: a case series.Ann Intern Med. 2015;163:91–8.
- Sarksyan DS, Platonov AE, Karan LS, Malinin IE, Khalitova LI, Shakhov VI, Clinical presentation of “new” tick-borne borreliosis caused by Borrelia miyamotoi [in Russian]. Ter Arkh. 2012;84:34–41 .
- Immunoassay for differential detection of class M and G antibodies to the agents of Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease) [in Russian] [cited 2015 Sep 7]. http://www.omnix.ru/materials/ooKKKWkM.pdf
- Estimated true prevalence using one test with a Gibbs sampler [cited 2015 Sep 7]. http://epitools.ausvet.com.au/content.php?page=OneTest
- Hofhuis A, Herremans T, Notermans DW, Sprong H, Fonville M, van der Giessen JW, A prospective study among patients presenting at the general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in the Netherlands. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64361.
- Huegli D, Moret J, Rais O, Moosmann Y, Erard P, Malinverni R, Prospective study on the incidence of infection by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato after a tick bite in a highly endemic area of Switzerland. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:129–36.