J Infect Dis. 1988 Oct;158,4:905-6. Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from joint fluid three months after treatment of facial palsy due to Lyme borreliosis. Schmidli J, Hunziker T, Moesli P, Schaad UB.
Attacks typically are intermittent and last from 3 days to 12 months. The knees are affected most often, but migratory arthritis is common and other large and small joints may be involved. Only very few Borrelia strains have been cultured from joint specimens worldwide However, a high percentage of patients with Lyme arthritis, 85%, have evidence of B burgdorferi DNA, detected by PCR, in the synovial fluid The local persistence of B burgdorferi in the joint over a long period of time might be related to the exacerbations of symptoms after chondrocyte cell transplantation. B burgdorferi is difficult to detect in synovial fluid, and cultures are positive only rarely