New aspects of the pathogenesis of lyme disease

:  1: Przegl Epidemiol. 2002;56 Suppl 1:57-67.New aspects of the pathogenesis of lyme disease
[Article in Polish] Zajkowska JM, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T. Klinika Chorób Zaka·nych i 
Neuroinfekcji AM w Bia ymstoku.
Morphological changes of B. burgdorferi as well as changes in expression of surface proteins 
caused by environmental determinants are essential in pathogenesis of Lyme disease.Cysts, 
spherical form, spheroplasts, L-form, and "blebs", gemmae, can be responsible for long lasting 
antigenic stimulation, signs of chronic borreliosis, and even probably connected with MS and 
Alzheimer disease. Mechanisms to avoid elimination and persistence in the host include:
expression of low heterogenic Osp A, B replaced by polymorphic in sequence and antigenic 
reactivity OspC, the hindrance of access to some membrane proteins by other proteins on the 
spirochete's surface, effects of tick saliva proteins action.Hiding of spirochetes is possible by 
invagination into fibrocytes membrane as well as, coating by antigens derived from 
lymphocytes B. Distribution of spirochetes is facilitated by binding to platelets through integrin
aIIb b3, and to the endothelial cells through integrins av b3 i a5b1, recognition of decorin by 
lipoproteins DbpA i DbpB, receptor for NAG, N-acetyl glucosamina. Endothelial cells, toxic 
products of granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages as well as phagocytosis counterpart in 
pathogenesis. Induced cytokines are connected with activation subsets of T lymphocytes involved 
in inflammatory response. Cytokines produced by Th1 as cytotoxic CD8 accompany the disease. 
Important are also dendritic cells regarded as initiators of Th1 response with participation of 
IL-12. In pathogenesis of Lyme disease participation of autoimmunity is notified, e specially 
molecular similarities between OspA and human lymphocytic antigen, hLFA-1. Neurotoxin, 
produced by B. burgdorferi Bbtox1 was identified. Encephalopathy signs in Lyme borreliosis
could be result of releasing toxico-metabolic products, ability of spirochetes to pass the 
blood-brain barrier as well as, effect of lymphocytes migration. Active invasion of brain 
endothelium as ability to adherence to endothelial wall could be the source of focused or 
disseminated inflammation of brain vessels. Antiaxonal antibodies could disturb axon 
conduction without damaging. But damage of white matter could be connected with damage of 
mielin production cells, probably by antibodies, induced in cross reaction

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